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HomeTren&dGuide to Filing a Patent in India: Step-by-Step Process

Guide to Filing a Patent in India: Step-by-Step Process


Securing a patent is vital for inventors and businesses looking to protect their intellectual property rights and gain a competitive edge in the market. In India, the process of filing a patent involves several steps that need to be followed meticulously to ensure a successful application. This comprehensive guide will walk you through the step-by-step process of filing a patent in India, from understanding the basics to navigating the legal requirements and documentation involved.

Understanding Patents

Before delving into the filing process, it’s essential to have a clear understanding of what a patent is and why it is crucial. A patent is a legal right granted by the government that gives the inventor exclusive rights to their invention for a limited period. In India, patents are governed by the Patents Act, 1970 and administered by the Indian Patent Office.

Types of Patents

In India, there are three main types of patents that can be filed:

  1. Utility Patent: This type of patent is granted for a new and useful process, machine, manufacture, or composition of matter.

  2. Design Patent: Design patents are granted for new and original designs for an article of manufacture.

  3. Plant Patent: These patents are granted for distinct and new varieties of plants that have been asexually reproduced.

Step-by-Step Guide to Filing a Patent in India

Now, let’s dive into the detailed process of filing a patent in India:

Step 1: Conduct a Patent Search

Before filing a patent application, it is essential to conduct a thorough patent search. This helps in determining if your invention is novel and unique, and if there are similar patents already existing. You can conduct a patent search on the Indian Patent Office website or seek the assistance of a professional patent search firm.

Step 2: Draft a Patent Application

The next step involves drafting a comprehensive patent application that clearly defines your invention. A well-drafted patent application should include:

  • Title of the Invention
  • Field of Invention
  • Background of the Invention
  • Detailed Description
  • Drawings (if applicable)
  • Claims

It is advisable to seek the guidance of a patent attorney or agent to ensure that your application meets the legal requirements and is in compliance with the guidelines set by the Indian Patent Office.

Step 3: File the Application

Once the patent application is drafted, it can be filed electronically with the Indian Patent Office. The application should be filed in the prescribed format along with the required fees. Upon filing, the application is assigned a filing date, and a filing number is generated.

Step 4: Publication of the Application

After the patent application is filed, it is published in the Official Journal of the Indian Patent Office after 18 months from the filing date or the priority date, whichever is earlier. The publication provides an opportunity for third parties to raise objections or file observations against the application.

Step 5: Request for Examination

Within 48 months from the filing date of the application, a request for examination must be filed with the Indian Patent Office. The examination is conducted to determine the patentability of the invention based on the criteria of novelty, inventive step, and industrial applicability.

Step 6: Prosecution of the Application

During the examination process, the Patent Examiner may raise objections or request modifications to the application. It is essential to address these objections promptly and provide clarifications or amendments as required. Failure to respond to the objections may lead to the rejection of the application.

Step 7: Grant of the Patent

If the Patent Examiner is satisfied with the patent application and all objections are overcome, the patent is granted, and the Letters Patent are issued. The term of a patent in India is 20 years from the filing date of the application.

Step 8: Maintenance of the Patent

Once the patent is granted, it is essential to pay the renewal fees periodically to keep the patent in force. Failure to pay the renewal fees may result in the patent lapsing.

FAQs – Frequently Asked Questions

  1. How long does it take to obtain a patent in India?
  2. The process of obtaining a patent in India typically takes around 3-5 years, depending on the complexity of the invention and the backlog at the Indian Patent Office.

  3. What are the costs involved in filing a patent in India?

  4. The costs of filing a patent in India include filing fees, attorney fees, examination fees, and maintenance fees. The total cost can vary depending on the type and complexity of the invention.

  5. Can I file a patent application without the assistance of a patent attorney?

  6. While it is possible to file a patent application without an attorney, it is highly recommended to seek professional guidance to ensure that the application meets all legal requirements and has the best chance of being granted.

  7. What can be patented in India?

  8. In India, inventions that are novel, non-obvious, and industrially applicable can be patented. This includes processes, products, compositions of matter, and improvements thereof.

  9. Is it necessary to file a provisional patent application before filing a complete application?

  10. Filing a provisional patent application is not mandatory in India, but it can be beneficial as it establishes an early filing date and gives the inventor time to further develop the invention before filing a complete application.


Filing a patent in India is a detailed and intricate process that requires careful planning, documentation, and adherence to legal requirements. By following the step-by-step guide outlined in this article and seeking professional assistance when needed, inventors and businesses can navigate the patent filing process successfully and protect their valuable intellectual property rights.